Submission of a paper to the Journal of African Political Economy and Development (JAPED) will be taken to imply that it is original unpublished work, not under consideration elsewhere. A copyright assignment form will be sent to the authors of accepted papers. This publishing agreement should be completed and returned to the editorial office. It is a condition of publication that authors assign copyright or license the publication rights in their articles, including abstracts, to the African Finance and Economics Consult (AFEC). This enables us to ensure full copyright protection and to disseminate the article, and of course the Journal, to the widest possible readership in print and electronic formats as appropriate. Authors may, of course, use the article elsewhere after publication without prior permission from AFEC, provided that acknowledgement is given to the Journal as original source of publication. Authors are themselves responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyright material from other sources.